The European Union and the United Kingdom agreed a Trade and Cooperation Agreement which contains a Protocol on Social Security to take effect from 1 January 2021. The Protocol provides for a wide range of social security issues into the future. On the 31 December 2020, the Convention on Social Security agreed between Ireland and the United Kingdom was commenced. Together these Agreements ensure, that all existing social security arrangements for Irish & UK citizens are maintained into the future. Ireland as an EU Member State, will extend on a unilateral basis the advantages of the Convention to Union citizens, as required.